Cloud Computing is a technology that brings many advantages with it for businesses that adopt it. In times of this recession when companies are resorting to either shutting down or come up with ways to reduce their operating expenditures, Cloud Computing offers Small & Medium Enterprises numerous benefits and a lifeline to stay in business. To validate this proposition, 10 SMEs that switched over to a Cloud Computing IT infrastructure in the last 12 months or less were chosen from various industries. The firms’ executives and decision makers were interviewed in detail about their IT operations before and after the implementation of Cloud Computing. The findings attained from the respondents clearly indicated a sharp reduction in both operating & capital expenses. This was evident by the lessening in the physical space required for the hardware, diminution of the IT staff headcount to monitor the systems, annulment of expenses incurred on software licensing and also for data recovery & systems security. The study clearly indicates that Cloud Computing is of immense importance to SMEs that wish to reduce their running costs yet continue expanding their operations.
How do you know when you have enough information in your Abstract? A simple rule-of-thumb is to imagine that you are another researcher doing an study similar to the one you are reporting. If your Abstract was the only part of the paper you could access, would you be happy with the information presented there?
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The 1940s in New York City heralded the triumph of American Abstract expressionism, a modernist movement that combined lessons learned from Henri Matisse , Pablo Picasso , Surrealism , Joan Miró , Cubism , Fauvism , and early Modernism via great teachers in America such as Hans Hofmann from Germany and John D. Graham from Ukraine. Graham's influence on American art during the early 1940s was particularly visible in the work of Arshile Gorky , Willem de Kooning , Jackson Pollock , and Richard Pousette-Dart among others. Gorky's contributions to American and world art are difficult to overestimate. His work as lyrical abstraction      was a "new language.  He "lit the way for two generations of American artists".  The painterly spontaneity of mature works such as "The Liver is the Cock's Comb", "The Betrothal II", and "One Year the Milkweed" immediately prefigured Abstract expressionism, and leaders in the New York School have acknowledged Gorky's considerable influence. The early work of Hyman Bloom was also influential.  American artists also benefited from the presence of Piet Mondrian , Fernand Léger , Max Ernst, and the André Breton group, Pierre Matisse's gallery, and Peggy Guggenheim 's gallery The Art of This Century , as well as other factors. Hans Hofmann in particular as teacher, mentor, and artist was both important and influential to the development and success of abstract expressionism in the United States. Among Hofmann's protégés was Clement Greenberg , who became an enormously influential voice for American painting, and among his students was Lee Krasner , who introduced her teacher, Hofmann, to her husband, Jackson Pollock.
Various methods can be used to evaluate abstract quality, . rating by readers, checklists (not necessary in structured abstracts), and readability measures (such as Flesch Reading Ease ).