I have used it in over 30 cases some of which were chronic for over 10 years and within a week, the patient is usually cured. The success rate is better that 80%. I recommend that the remedy is continued but those who did not do so after about 3 months do not use it anymore and can be considered permanently cured. The skin condition after this time resembles Vitiligo especially in the chronic cases which had eroded the melanin in the skin which does not regenerate but there is no discomfort or itchiness.
To investigate the effect of temperature on an enzyme controlled reaction Introduction and planning For the investigation of enzymes, I am going to conduct an experiment to see how temperature can affect the rate of reaction of enzymes by testing it with ...
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In conclusion, to improve on the experiment in future, proper attention and observation is very important.
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Simms, Tanya, and Anna Goldina. 2010. General Biology 1. Laboratory Manual.
How pH Affects the Break Down of Starch by the Enzyme Amylase
The optimum pH for the reaction of starch with amylase is pH 7. PH
values lower or higher than this value will result in a slower rate of
reaction. Amylase works in the range pH 3 to pH 11.
PH changes affect the structure of an enzyme molecule and therefore
affect its ability to bind with its substrate molecules. Changes in pH
affect the ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds that hold the enzyme
together, which naturally affects the rate of reaction of the enzyme
with the substrate. On top if this, the hydrogen ions neutralise the
negative charges of the R groups in the active site so that the
substrate and the active site do not attract and therefore do not
react. The optimum pH for most enzymes is pH7.
In the body, amylase works mainly in the small intestines, where the
acidity from the stomach has been neutralised by the hydrogencarbonate
ions in the pancreatic juices secreted by the pancreas. Therefore, it
follows that if amylase were adapted well to the surroundings which it
is found most commonly at, it would work best in neutral conditions,
which is pH 7. To allow for fluctuations in pH, amylase would need to
work from around pH 3 to pH 11.
Reason/Reference to pilot study
Values can be obtained measuring the breakdown of starch, instead of
just the colour when the iodine solution is added. If not much starch
is broken down, iodine will colour it blue/black so a low %
Transmission will be obtained. If a large volume of starch broken
... middle of paper ...
3 cm³ of distilled water with 3 drops of iodine. It then occurred to
me that this was inaccurate, as amylase solution is cloudy. Therefore,
I blanked it with 2 cm³ water, 1 cm³ amylase and 3 drops of iodine.
I decided to experiment with pHs within the range pH 2 to pH7, as I
discovered that pH 4 is the optimum pH, instead of my predicted pH7.
· Wear goggles to protect eyes from iodine solution
· If spilt on clothes or skin, wash with water to prevent harm to the
· Keep iodine bottle away from edge of table to prevent injury from
The amylase solution is taken from an animal. The owner of the animal
must permit this act. The animal's body must be paid respect when the
enzymes are removed so must therefore be treated carefully.
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