The chair Cartwright occupies was created by the Boston University trustees after King’s assassination. Cartwright was entering BU as a seminary student when King was finishing his doctorate.
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Martin Luther : Martin Luther , German theologian and religious reformer who initiated the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century.
As for all the other scholars, friends, politicians, and colleagues who for well over ten years have helped me in my attempt to get to know and to understand Luther, it is impossible to mention them by name. I fully realise that in the present short outline I cannot possibly to justice to their scholarship and patience. But all I am trying to do in the following pages is to elaborate in some detail a line of thought which, in my humble opinion, cannot be overlooked once we start on the difficult problem of understanding and re-educating our enemy. I am fully aware of the fact that the publication has all the unavoidable drawbacks of wartime writing, but if I succeed in suggesting to a few of my generous readers, especially those of the younger generation, that the whole problem of Germany is deeper, more profound, more spiritual, than some of our popular philosophers and journalists seem to think, I shall have fully achieved my purpose.
From first thesis to last words, Luther lived at the foot of the cross, where our rebellious condition meets with the beauty of God’s lavish grace in the gospel of his Son—a gospel deep enough to cover all the little and massive flaws of a beggar like Luther and beggars like us.
The emperor is appealed to in his three primary pamphlets, to destroy the power of the pope , to confiscate for his own use all ecclesiastical property , to abolish ecclesiastical feasts , fasts , and holidays, to do away with Masses for the dead , etc. In his "Babylonian Captivity", particularly, he tries to arouse national feeling against the papacy , and appeals to the lower appetite of the crowd by laying down a sensualized code of matrimonial ethics , little removed from paganism , which "again come to the front during the French Revolution " (Hagen, "Deutsche literar. u. religiöse Verhaltnisse", II, Erlangen, 1843, 235). His third manifesto, "On the Freedom of a Christian Man", more moderate in tone, though uncompromisingly radical, he sent to the pope . In April, 1520, Eck appeared in Rome , with the German works, containing most of these doctrines, translated into Latin . They were submitted and discussed with patient care and critical calmness. Some members of the four consistories , held between 21 May and 1 June, counselled gentleness and forbearance, but those demanding summary procedure prevailed. The Bull of excommunication , "Exsurge Domine", was accordingly drawn up 15 July. It formally condemned forty-one propositions drawn from his writings, ordered the destruction of the books containing the errors , and summoned Luther himself to recant within sixty days or receive the full penalty of ecclesiastical punishment .